Thursday, December 6, 2012


Demosthenes Practising Oratory and to strengthen his voice,
he spoke on the seashore over the roar of the waves.

384-322 BC

Demosthenes (English pronunciation:/dɪˈmɒs.θəˌniːz/, Greek: Δημοσθένης, Dēmosthénēs,  /dɛːmostʰénɛːs/), (384–322 BC), was a prominent Greek rhetorician of ancient Athens. His orations constitute a significant expression of contemporary Athenian intellectual prowess and provide an insight into the politics and culture of ancient Greece during the 4th century BC. Demosthenes learned rhetoric by studying the speeches of previous great orators. He delivered his first judicial speeches at the age of 20, in which he argued effectively to gain from his guardians what was left of his inheritance. For a time, Demosthenes made his living as a professional speech-writer (logographer) and a lawyer, writing speeches for use in private legal suits.

Chronological Table

384 Birth of Aristotle.
383 Birth of Philip II. king of Macedon
382 Probable birth year of Demosthenes. Seizure of the Cadmeia at Thebes by the Lacedaemonians, in the first campaign of their war
against Olynthus.
381 Siege of Phlius by Agesilaus.
380 Isocrates publishes his Пагчуириса!.
379 The Cadmeia recovered by the Theban exiles.
378 Death of Lysias and Archonship of Nausinicus. New valuation at Athens for taxation.
376 Chabrias gains the battle of Naxos. Phocion, then a young man, present at it.
375 Demosthenes an orphan at seven years of age. Some assign BC. 382, others BC 377 for the date.
374 Plataeae destroyed by the Thebans, the inhabitants taking refuge at Athens. Timotheus restores some Zacynthiau exiles . Isocraties:
373 Timotheus superseded in hie appointment for Corcyra by Iphicrates. Trial of Timotheus.
371 Congress at Sparta excluding Thebes. Battle of Leuctra. Foundation of Megalopolis.
369 First invasion of Laconia by Thebans. Restoration of the Messenians. Alliance of Athens with Lacedaemon.
368 Second invasion of Laconia by the Thebans. Attempt of the king of Persia to negotiate peace.
367 Archidamus III gains the ' Tearless Battle.' Pelopidas goes on an embassy to Persia. Aristotle visits Athens at seventeen years of age.
366 Epaminondas enters Achala. Oropus lost by the Athenians. Alliance between Athens and Arcadia. Corinth and Phlius make a separate peace with Thebes. Demosthenes of age, and commences proceedings against his guardians.
364 Battle at Olympia between the Arcadians and Eleans during the games. Timotheus conquers Potidaea. Speech of Demosthenes against Aphobus.
362 Fourth expedition of Epaminondas into Peloponnesus. Battle of Mantineia, and his death. Artaxerxes Ochus succeeds to the
Persian throne. Revolt of some of his Satraps.
361 General peace, but excluding the Lacedaemonians. Recognition of the independence of Messene.. Banishment of Callistratus the orator.
360 Failure of Timotheus in his attempt on Amphipolis then held by the Olynthians. Theopompus commences his history from this year. Embassy of Athenians to Thrace.
359 Accession of Philip. Cotys king of Thrace assassinated, and Thrace divided amongst three kings. Assassination of Alexander of Pherae.
358 Amphipolis taken by Philip. Expedition of the Athenians to Euboea against the Thebans. Cersobletes gives up the Chersonese to the Athenians except Cardia.
357 Commencement of the Social War. Death of Chabrias. The Phocians seize Delphi and its treasures. Philip conquers Pydna and Potidaea.
356 Birth of Alexander. Isocratis vtpl Elpi'iviis. Alliance of Philip with Olynthus.
355 Athens makes peace with her allies. Demosthenes is twenty-seven years of age. His speeches against Androtion and against Leptines.
354 Speech Trial and condemnation of Timotheus.
353 Philip seizes Pagasae, and besieges Methone, p. 26. The speech for the Megalopoíitans late in this year or early in the next. The speech against Timocrates.
352 Lycophron of Pherae calls in Onomarchus. Philip's attempt to pass Thermopylae foiled by the Athenians. The speech against Aristocrates. Philip besieges 'Hpcitov теГ^оу in Thrace, and falls sick.
351 The First Philippic and the speech for the Rhodians
350  The speech irpbs Boiwrbr vfpl roí ovíparos, and the irapaypa<p¡Kos inrtp QopfjLÍuvos.
349 Battle of Tamynae in Euboea. Demosthenes thirty-two years of age and Choragus. (Mr. Clinton gives B.c. 350 as the date for these events.) The Olyuthiac Orations.
348 Capture of Olynthus by Philip. Probable date of the speech against Meidias.
347 Philip celebrates the Olympia at Dium. Death of Plato. First embassy to Philip for peace on the motion of Philocrates (November). The speeches *pbt Bourrby trrtp irpoucis, and rpbs Патш- vtTov TrapaypaipLKÍS.
346 Return of the first embassy (March), and acceptance of peace by Athens. Philip prosecutes his conquests in Thrace till the second embassy  receives his ratification. Philip then crushes the Phocians, concludes the Sacred War, is made one of the Amphictyons, and celebrates as president the Pythian game?. The speeches  ... and .... Isocratis
345 Aeschinis ката Tiapxou. Philip intrigues in the Peloponnesus, and supports the Messenians against Sparta.
344 Demosthenes as Ambassador of Athens warns the Messenians and Argives of Philip's intentions. Thessalv divided and regulated by Philip after a victorious campaign in Thrace. The Second Philippic. Amendments proposed in the Peace.
343 Philip fails in his attempts on Ambracia and Leucas, through the intervention of Athens. Demosthenes goes as an Ambassador to Acarnania. Philip supports the Cardians against Diopeithes. The speech on Halonncsus. The speeches irtpl napairpeffßdas.
342 Macedonian troops occupy Oreus in Euboea. Philip in Thrace for eleven months, and threatens the Propontis and the Hellespont. Aristotle visits the court of Philp. The speech on the Chersonese, also that кат' 'Ob-vfi-iuoSapov. (Clinton dates the ' Do Chersoneso ' in B.c. 341.)
341 Expedition of Athens to Euboea on the motion of Demosthenes.  The tyrants of Oreus and Eretria expelled from the island. Demosthenes has a public vote of thanks for his services. Persuades the Byzantines to join in alliance with Athens. The Third
340 Philip besieges Perinthus. Declares war against Athens, and publishes his letter or manifesto. Obliged to raise the siege of Perinthus. Attacks Byzantium, which is succoured by the Athenians under Phocion. Philip thereby compelled to withdraw and make peace with the Byzantines. A second vote of thanks to Demosthenes, who reforms the Athenian navy. The Fourth Philippic.
339 Philip invades the Scythians of Bulgaria, and is defeated on his return by the Thracian Triballi. Aeschines goes as the Pylagoras or representative of Athens, to the Amphictyonic meeting, and instigates the Amphictyons against Amphissa. Philip appointed their commander-in-chief. Seizes upon Elateia. Demosthenes proposes and negotiates an alliance with Thebes.
338 Demosthenes honored with a third vote of thanks (March). Battle of Chaeroneia. Death of Isócrates, " the old man eloquent." Demosthenes delivers the Funeral Oration over those slain at Chaeroneia. The speeches against Aristogeiton.
337 Ctesiphon proposes the public presentation of a crown to Demosthenes. Philip marches into the Peloponnesus, and convenes a congress of States at Corinth. Appointed chief of the Greeks against Persia. Aeschines commences proceedings against Ctesiphon.
336 Assassination of Philip, and accession of Alexander. Deinarchus began to compose Orations.
335 Alexander invades Thrace, and attacks the Triballi. Revolt and destruction of Thebes. Demand of Athenian Orators by Alexander.
334 Alexander crosses the Hellespont, and is victorious at the Granicus.
333 Battle of Issus. The speech ката eeoxplvov Mti{u.
332 Siege of Tyre. The speech irpiis Фор^шса inrtp Samíiiv.
331 Battle of Arbela. Defeat of Agis by Antipater.
330 Death of Darius. The speech ' De Corona.'
329 The speech ката AtovvyoSiipov ßaßijs
328 Alexander advances to the Oxus and into Sogdiana.
327 The ... exhibited in the camp of Alexander on Hydaspes.
326 Alexander reaches the month of the Indus.
325 Harpalus flies to Athens.
324 Demosthenes is condemned in the matter of Harpalus, and retires into exile.
323 Death of Alexander, and the Lamían war. Return of Demosthenes.  Hypreidis
322 Battle of Cranon. Death of Demosthenes. His nephew Demochares already engaged in public affairs. Antipater disfranchises 12,000
of the poorer citizens of Athens and settles them in Thrace. Death of Aristotle.
317  Death of Phocion.
314 Death of Aeschines
280 Honors paid to Demosthenes.

Demosthenes was born BC 382., and died BC. 322., in the little island of Calauria, in the Sinus Saronicus.(a) He is stated to have delivered sixty-five orations, of which all that he left in writing have probably come down to us. (b) Those extant are distributable into three kinds: viz. 1. The Harangues to the People, or   including the Philippics, and those Philippics distinguished by the name of Olynthiac : 2. The Orations upon Public Causes including the Speech on the Crown: and 3. The Orations on Private Causes.

Demosthenes, De Corona, manuscript  on Papyrus - Princeton University Library

It is remarked in a treatise Concerning Oratory (c), ascribed to Tacitus, that the convulsions of society are the true sources of eloquence. It was Catiline, Verres, Milo, and Mark Antony, says the historian, that spread so much glory around Cicero ; nor did Demosthenes owe his vast reputation to his speeches against his guardians. The truth of this observation seems borne out by experience, and, doubtless, the momentous times in which Demosthenes nourished added greatly to the extraordinary effect of his speeches. At the time when the first Philippic was delivered, the Macedonian power was on the ascendant, and the genius of one man was threatening the liberties of Greece. Philip, who ascended the throne BC 359., had, in the first instance, defeated the Illyrians; and afterwards, in alliance with the Olynthians, he successively captured the important maritime towns of Amphipolis, Pydna, and Potidaea. (a) Whilst, again, the Athenians had been foiled in the Confederate War, their distinguished general Chabrias falling in the attack on Chios, BC 357. (b), Philip had a little later seized upon Pagasae, and commenced the siege of Methone, BC 353. (c) In the succeeding year to this the Athenians were in a like untoward manner thwarted in the Thessalian war, when their fleet, under Chares, co-operated with the Phocians under Onomarchus against Philip, but nevertheless the Macedonian gained a complete victory, and Thessaly fell by the results of the battle under his dominion, (d) Under such circumstances, then, Demosthenes spoke his first oration against Philip, being himself a host in the unconquerable zeal with which he opposed himself to him whom he viewed as the intended enslaver of Greece.

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Shortly after these events, when the Macedonian king had settled the affairs of Thessaly, he occupied himself in extending his dominion and influence, particularly in Thrace and the northern continent, strengthening the Macedonian border, and forming advantageous alliances with his neighbours, (e) But whilst he was in Thrace, he received intelligence that the Athenian party had acquired the ascendancy in Olynthus, and that that state threatened to forsake his alliance. The Olynthians had about thirty years previously nearly overwhelmed the Macedonian kingdom, and therefore imagined that when united to the Athenians they would be able to obtain the same position, or, at any rate, to withstand the Macedonians. And thus, the Athenian party at Olynthus managed finally to carry their proposal for an union with Athens in her war against Philip, (a) At the same time, an opportunity seemed to offer for engaging all Greece in a league against the threatening ambition of that king; and accordingly, whilst j35schines was commissioned by the Athenians to proceed to the Peloponnesus in order to gain over the Arcadians (in which indeed he failed), to Demosthenes was committed the task of urging on the people at home. In this undertaking the consummate orator produced the orations against Philip, known by the title of Olynthiac. In these Olynthiac orations, one of the principal objects was to persuade the Athenians to give up, for the purposes of the war, the theatrical fund, or that part of the public revenue distributed amongst them for the entertainment of the theatres : and as there was a law in force condemning to death any one who should propose the diversion of any part of this fund to other purposes, than that to which it was legally appropriated (b); great art was requisite in bringing this proposal before the people. But the eloquence of Demosthenes, the promise of the Olynthian alliance, and the prospect held out of glory and indulgence, produced an extraordinary zeal among the Athenians for the prosecution of the war. (c) Accordingly a force was decreed, amounting to fourteen thousand men, of whom four thousand were to be Athenian citizens, (a) Soon after this, in the third Attic month, the end of September, or beginning of October, Chares, the Athenian general, set sail with his fleet. To the great disappointment however of the Olynthians, his troops consisted only of two thousand middle armed mercenaries.

Alarmed at the smallness of this armament, an embassy was sent by the Olynthians to Athens, requesting additional troops, and Demosthenes thereupon delivered his second Olynthiac oration (b), which was followed by Charidemus being ordered to reinforce Olynthus with eighteen triremes, and four thousand men: and these united forces ravaged Pallene and Bottiaea. It was late in the year before Philip could collect his forces; and when he marched into the Olynthian territory, Chares had already withdrawn with his fleet.

As Philip had afforded ready protection to the towns in the Olynthian confederacy friendly to his cause, and it was evident that in the spring, when operations could recommence, he would attack them with a superior force, the Olynthians, in alarm, sent again an embassy to Athens, urging the early supply of forces, formed out of the Athenian citizens themselves, according to the promise made them. In support of their demands Demosthenes spoke his third Olynthiac, and, according to his recommendation, a complement of two thousand heavy-armed troops and three hundred horse, all Athenian citizens, was sent to reinforce the army already employed.

Such was the occasion of the third Olynthian oration. It is well known that Olynthus was nevertheless shortly compelled to surrender to Philip, BC 347. (a), and the influence of the conqueror extended itself throughout Greece, until the confederacy against him was finally overthrown by the decisive battle of Chaeronea, in which the combined army of the Athenians and Thebans was completely routed (b); and the genius of the Macedonian thenceforth became predominant.

The remainder of the life of Demosthenes was passed in ineffectual endeavors to rescue Greece from Macedonian domination until the time when, after having been driven into exile by his countrymen, and again recalled in triumph, he finally was compelled to flee to the island of Calauria, and finding his position desperate submitted to a voluntary death. During this latter period, he delivered the famous oration On the Crown: This oration was spoken in defense of his friend Ctesiphon, against whom the orator  schines had preferred an accusation for illegal conduct, in having moved a decree for a golden crown to Demosthenes, although the real object was an attack upon Demosthenes himself; and, as Ctesiphon had grounded his decree of honor on that orator's merit towards the republic, it was the object of  Eschines to show that Demosthenes was wholly unworthy, not only of honor, but of any public esteem, (c) That part of the great orator's reply, which is given in this translation, consists in an assertion of his services to his countrymen, and of the goodness of his advice to them ; and in denying that he could be justly charged with the event; or that noble and great actions were not equally praiseworthy, though completely successful, and that, agreeably to the law, which, to prevent frivolous accusations, subjected to banishment an accuser who did not obtain the votes of one fifth of the court, the rival orator was banished to Rhodes, or, as by some supposed, retired thither of his own accord.

It is to be observed that Mr. Mitford, in his History of Greece, endeavors most unfairly to disparage Demosthenes, for no other reason, apparently, than that he was the foremost man of the democracy, whilst the modern historian had an inbred antipathy to the rude and sometimes licentious freedom of the Grecian states. But he should rather have borne in mind, that Demosthenes was not the creator of the institutions of his country, but only their ardent defender against an encroaching power, and striving with earnest zeal to call into being the principles of patriotism and disinterestedness. And if he found the unworthiness, the unjust aggression, the cowardly retreating, the selfish supineness, inherent in all multitudes unformed by education and discipline, he only met what has been the lot of all patriots, not excepting the great Washington himself. How much, indeed, do the eager calls of Demosthenes upon his countrymen, to make provision for the defense of their country, put us in mind of the difficulties the American patriot had to struggle under, when those for whom he was risking every thing left him almost without means. But the fact is that, although there was much to be admired in the Athenian constitution, providing as it did a sort of House of Lords in the Areopagus, an assembly as illustrious for magnanimity and worth in those days as the House of Peers is in British annals, and also a kind of House of Commons in the General Council, which digested and prepared legislative measures; yet

there was this fatal error, that all measures had to be referred for ultimate decision not to a class of men superior to others, but to the whole community, which, in the constitution of human nature, then as now, necessarily contained a great preponderance of the bad over the good. And how base, yet how natural, do we find the motives actuating the needy yet pleasure-loving mass ! Not only did they appropriate a vast proportion of the revenues of the state to their own amusement at the theatres, but even declared it death for any one to propose the rescinding of this law, a grievance and folly of which Demosthenes complains in the Third Olynthiac. This reference of every thing to the whole mass of the population (the principle of universal suffrage) was, in fact, the ruin of every thing good in the Athenian constitution: for the still small voice of the wise was hardly heard amidst the roar of the ignorant; and whilst the one sought for the ultimate good of their country by 'denying themselves accustomed luxuries, the other snatched at present enjoyment, careless of destruction until it was at their gates.

It may not have been improper or unprofitable to have pointed out this misfortune in the Athenian state, since, even in our own times, men are found who would utterly destroy that constitution which in theory excited the admiration of Tacitus in ancient times, although he never expected it would be exemplified in practice (a), by establishing the principle of universal suffrage, i. e. of the predominance of the many, who of necessity are ignorant and often corrupt, over the few, who, by habit and study, by discipline and religion, are enabled to form a just and wise opinion.

As a youth in ancient Athens, Demosthenes had a severe speech impediment, and people jeered at his stuttering when he addressed his first large public assembly.

Demosthenes, the son of a prosperous sword maker, was orphaned when he was only 8. His guardians so pilfered his estate that little was left when Demosthenes came of age. Seeking justice, he successfully pleaded his own case and won damages. To improve his elocution, he talked with pebbles in his mouth and recited verses while running along the seashore over the roar of the waves.

Demosthenes' diligent work was successful and at the age of 25 he had entered public life. He had won popularity and power when King Philip of Macedon was beginning the conquest of Greece. Realizing the peril, Demosthenes made eloquent appeals for his countrymen to unite and preserve their freedom. These powerful orations against Philip were known as philippics, a term still in use to describe any impassioned denunciation or tirade.

The Athenians were too late in heeding Demosthenes ' warnings and he was falsely accused of taking a bribe. He was fined and imprisoned but escaped. When his final effort to obtain freedom for Greece failed, he swallowed poison from his pen and died.

Demosthenes' greatest oration is entitled `On the Crown'. He delivered it in 330 BC. It was a review and justification of his public life and a condemnation of his bitter rival, Aeschines, who was forced into exile.

On the Crown Insights

Felices Proavorum Atavos : happy the editors who lived before text-books. There were giants in the earth in those days: there could be no question for them what should be the aim of an edition of a classic. A Casaubon or a Lipsius had only to tell all that he knew; the bearing of some particular piece of erudition on a given passage of Athenaeus or Tacitus might be doubtful, but the editor was the only man who possessed it, and the scores or hundreds of scholars who composed the Republic of Letters were always eager to feed on the crumbs that fell from the rich man's table. Even when the vast stores of learning of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries had begun to be drafted off into separate collections, and their results were beginning to pass into common property, there was still much to be done which only great commentators could do. It is interesting, for instance, to observe how much even in recent commentaries is superseded by a great lexicon—which is only another way of saying how many commentaries were needed to make the great lexicon possible; or, to come closer to our special subject, how much of Dissen and Winiewski has passed into Thirlwall. The study of classical antiquity has hardly ceased to advance, but classical editions are no longer the principal organ of its progress. Tact rather than knowledge, judgment rather than insight, tend increasingly to become the distinctive qualities of the ideal editor. Of the questions which the Orations on the Crown have hitherto suggested, the greater part have upon the whole been adequately answered: only long and wide experience in tuition can supply an answer to the further questions, what an editor ought to expect from the reader, and what he may leave to be supplied by the teacher ; when to quote and when to refer, what to repeat and what to assume. Even with this training it is easy to say too little or too much; and, as other helps multiply, it becomes safer every day to err, if at all, in the direction of saying too little, to avoid repetition as much as possible, and simply to add one's own gleanings to the rich store gathered by the labourers of earlier days.

Viewed in this way, the task of a modern editor comes more and more to resemble that of an ancient scholiast, whose readers were satisfied with an explanation of the text, as they had not to familiarise themselves with Greek grammar, while their needs or desires were satisfied by the most cursory reminder on all subjects connected with history and geography. The scholiast and his readers had of course one advantage, if it is to be called so, over their modern successors—the language of their authors was their own mother tongue. To realise completely the meaning of Demosthenes, it was sufficient to comprehend the relation of the Greek of the fifth century of our era, to the Greek of nine hundred years earlier; we have to compare the ways in which two languages, differing almost as widely as kindred languages can differ, vary not the expression only, but the substance of a thought. And this suggests another difference. Almost every reader of a foreign language translates involuntarily sometimes: many readers translate often: it can hardly be doubted that an editor ought if possible to translate always. This discipline carries home, as nothing else will, a sense of the ambiguity of even such a perfect language as Attic Greek. There are all manner of possible shades of meaning and connection between which any translator has to decide; and the grounds upon which he has to decide are so shadowy, that he may well hesitate to obtrude his decision upon the reader, and where he feels compelled to state an opinion, will have little confidence in its commending itself to any judgment but his own. Such questions, though their importance is for the most part secondary, are likely to give careful readers increasing trouble for some time to come. Their difficulty, perhaps, may be held to excuse some hesitation in the language of an editor (and a fortiori in the language of two editors). The habit of seeking light increasingly in a microscopical inspection of the text, has an undeniable tendency— which we fear may be visible in our own work—to foster a temper of over-refinement.

It is hardly necessary to say more of what we have tried to do in the exegetical notes, for which, with insignificant exceptions, we are jointly responsible. The different chapters of the introductions are signed by their respective authors. It seemed best, as far as possible, to leave all questions of chronology to specialists. If anything like a consent existed, it would be of course desirable to put the results of enquiry before the tiro; but, when such cardinal dates as the birth of Demosthenes and the battle of Tamynae are still uncertain, to attempt to deal with the subject as a whole would have placed us between the alternatives of fatiguing the student with an exposition of conflicting evidence, which we felt incompetent to sum up, or of inviting him to burden his memory with a column of provisional dates. Leaving chronological difficulties on one side, it seemed possible to bring out some points bearing on the character and policy of the rival orators, which have hardly found an adequate place in the tradition of antiquity, or attracted the full attention at least of English historians. Of course a volume would have been too little to treat adequately of the practical politics of the age of Demosthenes, which have been studied much too exclusively from 'the world-historical stand-point.' It is so easy for posterity, for whom Philip and Demosthenes are the only important and significant figures of their time, to write as if their contemporaries had seen nothing else. When we remember how little we know of men like Eubulus and Demades and Lycurgus—some of whom stood higher with their contemporaries than Aeschines at any time, or Demosthenes during the greater part of his career—we see how fragmentary our knowledge of the period still is, and how imperfect it is likely to remain. Meanwhile, any one who has had occasion to read the Attic Orators carefully, will probably form a few impressions about the conditions and aims of public life in the fourth century B.C., which may serve (at least for hurried readers) to supplement the more solid information to be found in standard historians like Grote, or standard constitutional writers like Boeckh and Schoemann.

This may be the place to apologise for an inelegance in the notes upon Aeschines. The list of various readings was originally intended to appear in a shorter form, at the end of the little history of the text: it was placed in its present position at the suggestion of the Delegates of the Press. Unfortunately the commentary, where the readings which affect the sense were sometimes noticed, had been sent off separately, so that more than once the critical and exegetical notes overlap; while a more serious inconvenience accidentally arose from this change of plan, several readings, including most of those of Schultz and the MSS. collated by him, not being, for a considerable part of the speech, given in the same place with those taken from Bekker. These are of course too important to be omitted, so are inserted in a separate list.

Among previous editions, we have made most use of Bremi, Franke, and Schultz, for Aeschines; of Dindorf (one of the most valuable of variorum editions) and Dissen for Demosthenes. It would be presumption on our part to praise either, especially Dissen, whose anatomy of the rhetorical arrangement of the whole speech, and of every individual paragraph, is worthy to rank with his own analysis of Pindar: while he left little to be added in the way of historical illustration. Besides the histories of Grote and Thirlwall, which of course are indispensable, we found Mitford suggestive: with all his imperfect knowledge and grotesque unfairness, he brings out not a little which has fallen into the shade since his time; one reason is that he wrote from the historians rather than from the orators. Of the German writers upon the Orators, we have found most benefit in Westermann, in spite of his over ingenuity, and Droysen, who has written the history of the period covered by the Documents quoted in the Speech on the Crown, to prove that the documents in our present text do not fit. Boehnecke is rather a diffuse and perplexing writer; and it is perhaps hardly doing him injustice to take his results from continuous histories, which are largely constructed out of his materials.

While feeling the full extent of our obligations to these and to others, we have avoided crowding our pages with references. The class of readers whom all editors must expect, who simply want to make out their author with as little trouble as possible,are apt to find references simply an encumbrance. The class of readers whom all editors would desire, do not confine themselves to a single edition: when they read an author, they read the best books that bear upon him. To this class we have always thought that references, except to recondite sources of information, must seem an interruption and an impertinence. This consideration applies with especial force to subjects connected with grammar. Those who require to have a phrase or a construction explained, are surely better guided to a clear perception of its force by translation or paraphrase, or by the suggestion of an equivalent English idiom, than by being pointed to its place in a classification which, though elaborate, is not final, and instructed to distinguish it by a name selected from a terminology more complete than significant.

In conclusion, we have to express our thanks to the Master of Balliol for many valuable suggestions upon the way of approaching the questions which came before us in the course of our work; and to the Delegates of the University Press, from Whom we received great courtesy and kindness, together with many useful criticisms in detail from the Dean of Christ Church and the Rev. G. W. Kitchin. We owe much also to the great kindness of the Rev. E. L. Hicks, of Corpus Christi College, who, amidst the pressure of his various engagements, has found time to read our proof sheets—a labour always thankless, though we trust not fruitless.
G. A. SiMCOX. 
W. H. Simcox. 
May, 1872.

Demosthenes, George Augustus Simcox, William Henry Simcox - 1872 - 266 pages- Full view
LIFE OF AESCHINES. It seems from Aeschines' own statements that he can scarcely have been of genuine Attic descent : he nowhere mentions his paternal grandfather, and his claim (De FL p. 47, § 153) that his father belonged to a ...


By: Stanley Yavneh Klos
Edited By: Naomi Yavneh Klos. Ph.D.

  • First United American Republic: United Colonies of North America: 13 British Colonies United in Congress was founded by 12 colonies on September 5th, 1774 (Georgia joined in 1775)  and governed through a British Colonial Continental Congress.  Peyton Randolph and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief;
  • Second United American Republic: The United States of America: 13 Independent States United in Congress was founded by 12 states on July 2nd, 1776 (New York abstained until July 8th), and governed through the United States Continental CongressJohn Hancock and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief; 
  • Third United American Republic: The United States of America: A Perpetual Union was founded by 13 States on March 1st, 1781, with the enactment of the first U.S. Constitution, the Articles of Confederation, and governed through the United States in Congress Assembled.  Samuel Huntington and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief; 
  • Fourth United American Republic: The United States of America: We the People  was formed by 11 states on March 4th, 1789 (North Carolina and Rhode Island joined in November 1789 and May 1790, respectively), with the enactment of the U.S. Constitution of 1787. The fourth and current United States Republic governs through  the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate in Congress Assembled, the U.S. President and Commander-in-Chief, and the U.S. Supreme Court.  George Washington served as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief.

Book a primary source exhibit and a professional speaker for your next event by contacting today. Our Clients include many Fortune 500 companies, associations, non-profits, colleges, universities, national conventions, pr and advertising agencies. As the leading exhibitor of primary sources, many of our clients have benefited from our historic displays that are designed to entertain and educate your target audience. Contact us to learn how you can join our "roster" of satisfied clientele today!

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Primary Source Exhibits

2000 Louisiana Avenue | Venue 15696
New Orleans, Louisiana, 70115

727-771-1776 | Exhibit Inquiries

202-239-1774 | Office

Dr. Naomi and Stanley Yavneh Klos, Principals

Primary Source exhibits are available for display in your community. The costs range from $1,000 to $35,000 depending on length of time on loan and the rarity of artifacts chosen. 


Dad, why are you a Republican?

Historic Pillars of the Republican Party - GOP Foundational Legislation that Encourages & Safeguards U.S. Public Education, Social Justice, Conservation and Fiscal Responsibility. "Imitation is the sincerest form of change and it reaches its political pinnacle when others, especially the opposition, assert your ideas and laws as their own." - Stan Klos - Please Visit